Bill Nichols's text → an example of how New media study generates through recombination of ideas from previous theory works.
WB “TWOAITAOMR” 1936, film was young
BN “TWOCITAOCS” 1988, film and simulation media were young
→ From fetishisation of the object to fetishisation of the process (of interaction, simulation).
Interaction offers a great freedom within the boundaries of a larger system.
From simulation, video games (The sims, etc) to genetic engineering, ideology becomes the subject (economy, ubran planing etc).
Perhaps Nichols hopes for people "not to overthrow the prevailing cybernetic model but to transgress its redefined interdictions and limits."
The Work of Culture in the Age of Cybernetic Systems
Computer is an icon and metaphor influencing the way we think.
Cybernetic systems “include an entire array of machines and apparatuses that exhibit computational power” & are “self‐regulating mechanisms or systems within predefined limits and in relation to predefined tasks”.
Computers as a metonymy: Computers as a symbol of the spectrum of Networks, systems of cybernetic behaviour.
Like the times of mechanical reproduction symbolized by the camera, the age of cybernetic systems symbolized by the computer has brought profound transformations in conception & relation to the self & reality.
Mechanical Reproduction and Film Culture
WB argues for correspondence amongst 3 types of changes: - in economic mode of production - in the nature of art - in the categories of perception. Technological innovation affect the domain of artificial
Mechanical reproduction cannot reproduce authenticity, therefore there is a swift from the ritual function to the political function of the work of art.
Mechanical reproduction allows the actor to reach a larger audience than the space of the stage according to a footnote of WB (affects the actor and ruler).