Karina/RW&RM class notes

From XPUB & Lens-Based wiki


Quartz: What we learn when Cameroonian toddlers ace the marshmallow test of self-control

24 MAY

Nishika n8000
GIF portrait

why you like it?
what is really specific about this?
why interested in lomography

  • analog - waiting / unknown
  • unique
  • experimental
  • cannot recreate

what is specific about this object?
what distinguishes it from other cameras?
takes particular type of image

1000 - 1500 words

what do you like / what did you pick?
why picked that object?
specificity of object: what distinguishes it from other objects?
what is it interfacing / mediating?
how does it relate to work / self-directed research?

\\\ Analog, plastic or Lomography cameras all have a specific technique: lengthly process; a sense of unknown and uniqueness. Plastic and Lomography cameras also have an experimental aspect, as the photographs are meant to be altered midst process, as they are taken. Double exposure, colour enhancement, multi-lens images, mixing upside down with upright, grain or light-leaks can all create a surrealistic image.

Nishika n8000 is a multi-lens analog camera which was introduced in April 1989. Unlike other multi-lens cameras, this particular one creates a stereograph. As the four lenses take a photo at the same time, yet from slightly different angles, it creates a 3D effect with an illusion of depth and movement. The individual images can be placed together on the computer to create a gif.

  • explain process of image making
  • 35mm film
  • scan to make digital
  • make gif

  • look into history of stereography
  • aim of photography: to document
  • aim of lomography: artistic experimentation
  • history / development of Nishika cameras

Lomography: Photo Glossary


Franc's notes:

  • Fear of loosing memory
  • Recording (what tool are to be used?) a dance
  • Capturing memory
    • archive / database /
    • is "interfacing the law" a project that could archive your dances? to what purpose? would there be any illegality?
    • is it an interpersonal archive? can be accessed / read / be understood be external users?
    • what kind of information is it going to be shown?
  • youtube channel - dancing diaries of Karina's moving hips! ieepa!

Own notes:
why sean and I are goofy?
explain relationship in essay - we make mistakes

whats the interface?

instrument of scoring a dance
a record of a dance - video of method
instrument of
self training technology

each step is a notation
what can i do with this system of notation?
mix the order

matter of memory bergson
we don’t have flashbacks
photographs only pretend to reproduce the past / memory

read more about memory
smell, touch

convey contrast
pretend to have no mistakes
mistakes show purity



memory of dance notation is possible
not yet said / not yet danced

personal archival tool for me
something for audience
make possibilities for each

there is an urgency to film it
motivation for the work

to do:

  • remove headings
  • add personal ideas / points
  • mode of notation and mode of presentation
  • add rich images in text

things to keep in mind:

  • what are you doing now and what is its value?
  • what is the value? look at own motivation
  • I think its very urgent to do this now





Pirate Pad


Steve gives intro:
15:15 we make notes and briefly research possible subject for the second essay
15:30 meet in groups
Group A: large project space
Group B: Studio

What do you want to research this trimester?
Researching the second essay


  1. Look at the conclusion of the last essay and consider the research strands it suggests.
  2. Formulate a question arising from the group work you did last trimester
  3. Consider new questions that arise at the start of this trimester
  4. Consider the core questions at the centre of you self-directed research
  5. Follow leads suggested by your bibliography
  6. Use previous methods (see below)
  7. Explore Jstore

First draft: 22 February
Deadline: March 22

New project: collaboration with DePlayer the theme: the relation between scores and sound. Michael, Aymeric, a graphic designer, Andre. Still speculative: DePlayer have a publication in which sound artists make works and have invited contributions for the next issue.
They have been showing their records, Michael been showing how to produce sounds from scripts, Andre technical devices. Looking into the science
Tmrw it is graphical scores – probably start with John Cage.
Also a publication with Florian, about experimental publishing, decided to write a manifesto which can be amended by other students.
What is stake in writing a manifesto?
Performing an intention.
One opinion: Manifesto classifies = self classifying, you may see the hypocracies and contradictions in your thinking, you are making a stand which places you in a position which others may oppose.
Another opinion: The manifesto is a tool to experiment and understand what we are doing. Part of the topic we have to explore: which political structures communicate to other people; the M is a declaration of intent, the process should allow for reflection on the course. An action which shows an ideology.
What do we agree on?
We start with a question." Steve's notes end here

Manifesto for Florian
How to make a manifesto that:

  • is personal / has character
  • balances being objective / subjective (both?)
  • accessible to future students
  • allows content to be manipulated / added / taken away
  • is a tool / shows action, not only ideas

Issues that arise

  • need to see whether there are already existing similar manifestos
  • is self classifying / hypocrisies of own ideas

Book worth reading for next essay
Lauren Slater - Opening Skinner's Box https://www.amazon.co.uk/Opening-Skinners-Box-Psychological-Experiments/dp/074756860X

  • B.F. Skinner
  • Stanley Milgram
  • David Rosenhan
  • Harley & Latané
  • Leon Festinger
  • Harry Harlow
  • Bruce Alexander
  • Elizabeth Loftus
  • Eric Kandel
  • Antonio Egas Moniz

recording time using photography
memory flow - photography as memory

not archival - too vast
how photography brings back memories - the time and date do not


  • parallel between conference of d'usse - who you get an idea? how the act of creation begins
  • how can you make conceptual art? medium is the idea itself
  • can the idea have an aesthetic?
  • Noemie: idea was created by the people that think about it.
  • Her teacher: idea is there. people only have the concept
  • Paradox between what is said and what is done
  • work is organised and think about form, yet they do not acknowledging form
  • the photography is not the art, but the proof that the performance existed


  • cybernetics - confrontation between machine and men. physical can be improved by gadgets
  • technology is evolving. are we taking good use of it.
  • is it wise to express ourselves through social media?
  • digitally controlled gadgets - we could perceive wider using tech. we could be losing ourselves?
  • electronic surveillance
  • answers answered through time, continuously evolving
  • can't classify as good or bad - its part of human nature. it's morally challenging
  • established by religion
  • comparison of thermostat - adjusting temperature to our needs
  • missiles for medical advances
  • didn't want to hand over research to military
  • games used for military uses
  • good or bad? it's neutral


  • contextualising glitch historically, aesthetically
  • what it was personally too?
  • looked into history (avant-garde) and it's beginnings 20th century
  • at first breaking patterns, now breaking patterns technologically
  • be more critical, and say what is happening right now
  • might not follow with technological glitch, because now sees as a concept of breaking
  • wants to have deeper understanding what it is personally
  • wants to explore what is avant-garde right now

Notes from other's about my future essay / work

  • Norbert Wiener wrote about: Newtonian time. Bergsonian time
  • See Bergson's : matter and memory, which talks about how we experience time, how we live time, (duration) as opposed to abstract time (the clock, the watch)

  • How people from different cultures relates with time.
  • She thinks about exploring the relation between photography and time. And how abstract it can be. Photography helps to bring memories back, it captures time and memory.
  • Memory has loads to do with media. Archival is something that she wouldn’t like to go much into. But more into the psychological aspect of it.

  • Connexion between culture and time. Other philo that it may not be a cultural thing but a personal kind of thing.
  • Abstract of time. Looking at photographies bring back memories. Lack of memory. How photographie capture time and memory.

  • Time perspective and cultural diversity
  • Where do people really come from? from a biological and non-political perspective
  • What is time?
  • Relativity
  • Significant vs insignificant, preconception

ideas that popped in mind:



Insight into next trimester

encyclopaedia of media objects

  • what is an encyclopaedia?
  • what is media?
  • what is an object?

Florian's research on wiki

"A saint you would pray to and they would direct you to god"
Things that connect one with another
Numbers in pages

Random discussions during class

WIRED - New Forms for 2017 by Nick Compton
New building inspired by pixels - 56 leonard New York

Southpark growing human penis on mouse (response to growing human ear on mouse)

Radio around the world: what is played right now

Music around the world: choose your region and year

see how music genres are connected / music guide radio

The Funny Fish Finger Friends - falls into pond

Matthew Barney - cremaster 3

Jean-Marc Cote

Mishka Husky - Give Me My Toy

Un Autre Monde JJ Grandville

Years: What Tree Rings Sound Like Played on a Record Player

Dark humour comics

Unprepared Piano - Thompson & Craighead

Grabs parts of torrents that are being downloaded live



Franc - Cybernetic Nature
Further reading for Franc:

Katherine Hayles - 'How We Became Posthuman' (1999)

Neil Harbisson: The man who hears colour

Flatland (movie) abut - 2D world turns 3D
descriptive geometry: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Descriptive_geometry

Meet Graham, The Only Man Who Can Survive A Car Crash

Our body is no older than 7 years old. How could we use this biological phenomena into technological immortality?
Nature already regenerates our body and cells. The way nature boycotts that is by cancer (constantly regenerating cells)

Giulia - Choreography of Identitarian Control
Further reading for Giulia:

  • Foucault - distinguish difference between disciplinary societies (technology of the super ego)
  • Panopticon example: prisoners look at control tower wonder whether they are looked at discourse is the material practice
  • disciplinary societies: teritorialised on written presets - don't work the same in different discourses (school, army, church)
  • controlled societies: deteritorialised and digital (airport:information intersection)
  • ideal: flow of information through a system

Max - passports / free movement
Further reading for Max:

  • Weight / power of passports and connections between countries
  • World Passport 1954
  • World government
  • Inbetweenies: New Models of Collective Practice http://bak.spc.org/everything/e/hard/texts2/inbetweenees.html
  • The Slovenian Artists'Collective (NSK) http://bak.spc.org/everything/e/hard/texts2/1nsk.html
  • Literacy test african american voters
  • 'Literacy' test to get passports
  • Referendum in Switzerland a few years ago
  • Papers Please mundane game
  • The Hand That Signed the Paper
  • Sarajevo Passport Holders - Ebsen Hansen
  • Nike Arns - The Nigerian Connection - NSK passports as escape and entry vehicles

Claudia - conceptualising glitch
Further reading for Claudia:

  • glitch outside of computer functions - can be aesthetic / social
  • avant garde: collage / surrealists / dada / constructivism
  • duchamp- large glass (the bride stripped bare of her bachelors even)
  • Edit (movie)
  • Andre Bretton - glitch in literature
  • Exquisite corpse (poem)
  • Ambivalent
  • The more used, it becomes normal, no longer glitch - breaking continuity
  • Kenneth Goldsmith - `Uncreative Writing'
  • Stephen McMennamy - photography (you / your brain are the glitch)
  • Denis Carrier - photographer
  • Friedrich Kittler - Discourse Networks 1800-1900 (avant garde is the symptoom of that)
  • Photography and phonography
  • Kittler - 'Literature, Media, Information Systems: Essays' - Introduction by John Johnston
  • Everynone - 'Words' (video) - causes glitch in thought https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b5ykdE7B-qQ

Emily - Wonkr, Douglas Coupland's app for the future
Further reading for Emily:

  • People need to be responsible about using social media / apps / sharing content
  • Need to battle for rights
  • responsibilisation is asymmetrical - I need to learn about the responsibilities, but they don't need to
  • difference between opacity and transparency (making things transparent)
  • Panopticonism - I will behave myself because I might get caught
  • Spotify - pay people to stop commercials (freedom is not a right)
  • How to see it from the developers / corporate perspective?
  • Facebook held accountable for Trump's victory because of false news
  • Israeli defence force - saturating news with positive articles before planned attacks
  • Florian Cramer
  • Networks Without a Cause (institution of network cultures) http://www.polity.co.uk/book.asp?ref=9780745649672

Karina - Time Perspectives and Cultural Diversity
Further reading for Karina:

  • Zimbardo's prison tests
  • look at social psychologic & anthropologists methods / experiments (control group?)
  • milgrims on obedience (filmed experiment)
  • newtonian time (clock time ) burgsonian time (take away pace)
  • the more time you had, the
  • children feel the weight of time differently
  • bursonian time -based on experience
  • how are you structuring your time?
  • time is imbricated in culture and lifestyle

  • look at time linearly or as a cycle (karma)
  • slaughter house 5 - kurt volume (book)
  • memento (movie)


catching up on peer task

Notes with Claudia
Make an abstract (two to three sentences which give outline of the text- answer: what do you want this text to do?) (50-60 words)

300 words source 1 - what / how / why?
300 words source 2 - what / how / why?

Why this text is of interest to you?

100 words source 1
Karina has been studying in an international school and studying with her loads of people from different cultures and backgrounds. The man of the text talks about that he has a different perspective than his family because he has been educated in a different place (?). She can relates with it because of this culture diversity. In school they allways exchange their personal cultural differences.

100 words source 2
It looks at cultural differences, but what is more interesting is that years ago she thought about having a different unit of time, and this text is about mesurment of time. These two are very connected. Also because they travel, when you travel you need to adjust to the culture, and how people look at time. The human aspect of it, the fact of living the experience on ones own skin. More emphatetic.

What is its relation to your self directed research?

100 words source 1
Look into how people looks at time differently and whether there is any cultural diversity between time theory. She wants to talk with people from different countries and see how compare and themselves with time. Social research and the see from here.

100 words source 2
It looks at the three aspects she wants to study which are: time, culture and mesurement. Also the fact that it is quite personal, is only his experience and embrace the culture. She doesn't want to do any raw analysis, but talk to people and seeing what they feel.

How can you turn the questions these texts raise into work?

100 words source 1
The main question is: there is not only difference between individus, but also a cultural aspect behind it. She wories about making steriotipes, but want to have a better understanding on how different cultures view time.

100 words source 2
How to gather/present data? NO Bios or stereotypical? One way to do it is to use the MOM test: it is a way to create questions without getting answers you expect. The best way is talking about the experience of their friends in their countries, not the experience of Karina in their countries (EX: 1- perspective of these people in their country, 2- perspective of Karina perspective, 3- how her perspective clashes (or not) when she visits the country ). People who she wants to talk with they are expats, they can partially relate with their country still, but they look to it from the distance, may be it would be good if she not only ask expats but also locals and see how it differs.


Conclusion (250 words)


Aim: write 1500 word synopsis on researched work
deadline: 2nd November


Shelley Jackson
ineradicable stain.com
Skin Video

Patchwork Girl

wiki example: Laurier

Philip Zimbardo - The psychology of time

psychologist and a professor

  • Yale 1959-1960asa
  • New York University 1960-1967
  • Columbia University 1967-1968
  • Stanford University 1968-current

In 2008, Zimbardo published his work with John Boyd about the Time Perspective Theory and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) in The Time Paradox: The New Psychology of Time That Will Change Your Life. In 2009, he met Richard Sword and started collaborating to turn the Time Perspective Theory into a clinical therapy, beginning a four-year long pilot study and establishing time perspective therapy. In 2009, Zimbardo did his Ted Talk "The Psychology of Time" about the Time Perspective Theory.

French Republican Calendar

Used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871. The revolutionary system was designed in part to remove all religious and royalist influences from the calendar, and was part of a larger attempt at decimalisation in France.

Katherine Hayles - writing machines
distractibility - links cause possibility of distractions

look at list of good reads on wiki

Stanford marshmallow experiment

WHAT is the thesis / argument / question

conclude each section
then conclude overall story

Long Beach, California - February 2009
Share secret power of time
Look into principles of Adam's temptation of the forbidden fruit - peer pressure
Life is temptation -
present focus: impulsive, yes, now, yielding
future focus: reflective, no, later, resisting

Temptation of teenage girls - 60% yielded to sexual temptations
Temptation of four-year-olds - treats
Explanation of the marshmallow test (researcher Walter Mischel): if you wait till end, you get another marshmallow
2/3 give in to temptation
1/3 resist, delay the now for later
Fourteen years later researcher (Walter Mischel) went back to study the children.
There was a large difference between the children that gave in or resisted temptation
The children that resisted got better grades (250 points higher on SATs)
They got into less trouble, they were better students, they we self-confident and determined
They were future focussed, rather than present focussed

Time perspective (TP) - how humans non-consciously divide the flow of human experiences to time frames. These happen automatically and subconsciously. These vary between cultures, social classes, educational levels, nations and people. They become bias as people learn to over-use some frames, and under-use others.
Our decisions are determined by the action that needs to be done.
Present oriented people are interested in the immediate situation or stimulation - what is happening now (what other people are doing).
Past oriented people focus on past experiences and memories - focus on what happened before.
Future oriented people anticipate the consequences in the future (cost-benefit analysis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cost–benefit_analysis) - they focus on what will be.
He argues that time paradox is something that will subconsciously determine every decision that you make, which is the extent to which you have bias to one of these time perspectives

  • Past TP - focused on positives
  • Past TP - focused on negative
  • Present TP - hedonism (focus on joys of life)
  • Present TP - fatalism (doesn't matter, life is controlled)
  • Future TP - life goal oriented
  • Future TP - transcendental (life begins after death or the mortal body)

"Optimal temporal mix
developing the mental flexibility to shift time perspectives fluidly, depending on the demands of the situation, allowing one time zone to take precedence while others recede temporarily."

Balancing time perspective

  • past-positive: high
  • future: moderately high
  • present-hedonism: moderate
  • past-negative: low
  • present-fatalism: low

past positive gives you roots to connect to your identity and family - to be grounded
future gives you wings to soar to new destinations and challenges
present hedonism gives you energy to explore people, places, self and sensuality

and time in excess has more negatives than positives
future orientated people sacrifice family time, friend time, fun time, personal indulgences, hobbies and sleep for success. They live for work, achievement and control.

Phil Zimbado previously saw himself as future orientated.
He grew up in a south Bronx ghetto. His whole Sicilian family was past and present orientated. He sacrificed a lot to achieve success, all thanks to his teachers who got involved and taught him to be future orientated.
Until he understood how to balance his time perspective. He added present-hedonism and past-positive.
Now 76 years old and has more energy, is more productive and happier than ever before.

He is applying TP to world problems

  • chasing drop out rates of school children
  • combatting all addictions (problems of present hedonism)
  • enhancing teen health
  • curing veterans' PSTD with time metaphors
  • promoting sustainability and conservation
  • reducing physical rehabilitation drop out rates by 50%
  • altering appeals to suicidal terrorists
  • modifying family conflicts as time perspectives clash

Many life problems are solvable by understanding your time perspective and those of others. This idea is simple, yet the consequences are profound.


Orality and Literacy
Aim: identify thesis in given work & know how to make notes
!!! Add content (synopsis) on personal wiki - ask Franc how to connect pages / add files


Check out xPub Reader

Text by Steve in a catalog from last years graduates
we are so used to reading, we forget its a technology
language is a software
alphabet recent technology
books - analog hard-drive to preserve human memory
typographical hallucinations become natural
technology of alphabet becomes author of subjectivity

Thesis: alphabet is a technology that stabilises memory
hard drives could be naturalised in the future
(relation to history & memory is interesting)

Reading is a technology we learn at a young age, we forget that once we become older. It becomes neutralised

Flusser (1988)

most important dimensions
"..communication is no longer capable to transmitting the thoughts and concepts which we have concerning the world.
New codes are being elaborates. most important is technical images
its clear for serval centuries, if you want t understand the world, its insufficient to describe the world
numbers are images of words. '2' pair or couple
numbers developed in a very refined way by computers
numbers transformed to digital worlds, into synthetic images
now to .. clear and distinct need to use synthetic images, not words
people don't know how to use new apparatus
(math representing phenomena's)

in book, alphabetical handwriting invented in past, action was evolved
traditional images were used for world
alphabet was invented, mythical though gave way to historical critical though
people started thinking historically (influence subjectivity, how we act against time because..)
line disrupted into points
historical progressive thought disturbed
before writing, people though it prehistorical way
we begin to elaborate post-historical elaborate way
prehistorical, historical, post-historical

systems complex in 2 senses
maintain complex relationship
functionally complex - use system use in complex way (challenge to creative thought)
structurally complex - functionally simple (tv - complex object, use is simple) (stultifying, idiotic)
ethical mankind lowering because we use structures wrong (functional complexity)
chess game (functionally complex) v.s. tv set (structurally complex)
he is committed to
(tech is good, but making our brains limited, we use it wrong)
(structurally complex doesn't represent our world)
(function and user not connected)
(we should get more connected with structurally complex items)

most is negative
greek jewish tradition: philosophy has prejudice, image is only copy - forbidden, mistrust
now, images no longer, they are copies, not images
Bemjamin first thinker
started from his though which is wrong, other extreme is fasist which is against, third is friend but disagree
every revolution is a technical revolution (strong age, industrial revolution)
so far tech simulated body, now it simulates nervous system, so immaterial / spiritual revolution

Extra notes

  • (prehistorical, historical, structural (conceptual))
  • (started with image, linear into text, back into image)
  • we don't trust our eyes, we thought is more important
  • Havelock 1961 - Prefaced Plato
  • Plato - "there is no place for artists and poets" seen as Fasist
  • For centuries stories would get passed down and spread, culture of memory, broken by literacy
  • Secondary orality is scripted vs. orality which includes experiences
  • First just alphabet, then split to discourse network film, parongraphy (recorded sound) and alphabet (collage of media)
  • Discourse Network - Kittler
  • 'linear' time during 'language' period
  • each era has its technology
  • Gutenberg writing and printing
  • side though: once technology becomes accessible, need to find a way to control information - church with printing Bibles
  • how is power distributed? the impact of printing


  • make thesis of his thoughts (500 words). (divide into 4 pieces)
  • Upload Flusser thesis on wiki by next class

Marshall McLuhan (1977)

(machines have nervous system, circulating information, cybernetic idea of the world)
dr. Grey Walter's tortoises with a 2 cell nervous system (like a Dyson vacuum cleaner)

the medium is the message
some media are cool some are hot
media makes us understand society itself
most known for electronic media - nervous system
prof. of english
"understanding media - ... of man"

the medium is the message
doesn't matter what you say in the telephone, the environment effects the
what you print doesn't effect, its the printer
tv doesn't promote literacy, it has a different effect
literacy is objective, tv is subjetive
radio people more illiterate than tv people
'to read' - to guess
reading is an activity of rapid guessing, to select one meaning needs rapid guessing

advertising is a great (corporate) art form
to make an effect, artist makes trap for attention
tv has no criteria to measure popularity, just how many views

the effect on tv is ineffective of the programme
the effect on you is vast, on the programme is

violence for a search for identity
alternative of violence is dialogue
universal peace in the world, people are cooled off by media instead of self expression
quest for identity by bumping into other people (violent quest)
star wars bionic man/woman - young people trying to understand who they are
violence = seen in wide sense, encounter

Extra notes

  • re-tribalisation
  • media theory / ecological movement - Radical Software
  • overall, his message is very broad, not clear
  • watching tv is passive (not creating effect)
  • Media is the Massage
  • the environment is the medium, need to strip the content away (lightbulb for a village)
  • modern media discourse, the conditions of the possibility
  • his style is so clunky (read reviews)

conclude each section 1) orality to literacy 2)... 3)complexity
then conclude overall story


Intro into Steven's work and workflow


Ant Farm, Media Burn (1975).
Artists, architects, designers collaborated and lived together. The medium is the message.

Everything Magazine (1996-2002)
Just when art was being talked about in magazines, it was talked about as if everyone knew about it. Everything Magazine stripped it down to interview and have better insight (interviews)

Josh Harris - Sudo did something similar with more resources, hoping someone would support it

synopsis is important - learn how to do it!
Don't start with method, just tell people what you are doing.

A Short Film about War, Jon Thomson & Steve Rushton
Two screens simultaneously show same content. Screen 1 shows collection of Flickr images. Screen 2 shows 'code' showing http link, user, date updated, location on Earth

Concluding Steven's work method: Uses other's text and re-contextualizes it

At end of trimester 1 & 2 hand in 1500 word reflexion (your work in relation to a broader artistic and cultural context)
At end of trimester 3 hand in 1500 word text on method (based on reflexions)
Beginning trimester 4 hand in 1500 word project proposal
April 2018 hand in 8000 thesis

We bring our own texts to work on in class
What is this text saying, to me - argumentative
using different methods: comparative


  1. trimester hand in
  2. attitude in class
  3. written small text in class (posted on wiki)

300 word description of your work

100 words = what?
100 words = how?
100 words = why?