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Radio Kootwijk

The housing accommodations of Radio Kootwijk arose as a result of the building of a shortwave transmitter site with the same name, starting in 1918. The transmitters played an important role in the 20th century as a communication facility between the Netherlands and its then colony of Dutch East Indies 800px-Radio_Kootwijk_Gebouw_A.jpg


Freedom of Speech by country

The Netherlands

Article 7 of the Dutch Constitution (Grondwet) in its first paragraph grants everybody the right to make public ideas and feelings by printing them without prior censorship, but not exonerating the author from their liabilities under the law. The second paragraph says that radio and television will be regulated by law, but that there will be no prior censorship dealing with the content of broadcasts. The third paragraph grants a similar freedom of speech as in the first for other means of making ideas and feelings public, but allowing censorship for reasons of decency when the public that has access may be younger than sixteen years of age. The fourth and last paragraph exempts commercial advertising from the freedoms granted in the first three paragraphs.("De Grondwet". 2011-04-29.)

The penal code does have laws sanctioning certain types of expression. Such laws and freedom of speech were at the centre of a public debate in The Netherlands after the arrest on 16 May 2008 of cartoonist Gregorius Nekschot. On 1 February 2014, the Dutch Parliament abolished the law penalizing blasphemy. Laws that punish discriminatory speech still exist and are occasionally used to prosecute.

The Dutch Criminal Code § 137(c) criminalizes(Weinstein, James (2011). "Extreme Speech, Public Order, and Democracy: Lessons from The Masses". In Hare, Ivan; Weinstein, James. Extreme Speech and Democracy. Oxford University Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-19-954878-1.):

… deliberately giv[ing] public expression to views insulting to a group of persons on account of their race, religion, or conviction or sexual preference.


The 14th article of the Greek Constitution guarantees the freedom of speech, of expression and of the press for all but with certain restrictions or exceptions; for example although it generally forbids any preemptive or after the fact censorship, it allows public prosecutors (Template:Lang-el) to order a confiscation of press (or other) publications (after having been published, not before) when the latter:

  • 14.3.a: insult Christianity or any other known (Greek: Template:Lang) religion,
  • 14.3.b: insult the President of Greece,
  • 14.3.c: disclose information related to the Greek Armed Forces or to various aspects of Greek National Security,
    • have as a purpose the forceful overturning of the Greek System of Government (Greek: Template:Lang),
  • 14.3.d: clearly (Greek: Template:Lang) offend public decency, in the cases defined by Greek Law (Greek: Template:Lang).

Definition of speech

Speech is human vocal communication using the phonetic combinations of a limited set of perfectly articulated and individualized vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of words characteristic of a language (that is, all English words sound different from all French words, even if they are the same word, e.g., "role" or "hotel"), and using those words in their semantic character as words in the lexicon of a language according to the syntactic constraints that govern lexical words' function in a sentence. In speaking, speakers perform many different intentional speech acts, e.g., informing, declaring, asking, persuading, directing, and can use enunciation, intonation, degrees of loudness, tempo, and other non-representational or paralinguistic aspects of vocalization to convey meaning. In their speech speakers also unintentionally communicate many aspects of their social position such as sex, age, place of origin (through accent), physical states (alertness and sleepiness, vigor or weakness, health or illness), psychic states (emotions or moods), physico-psychic states (sobriety or drunkenness, normal consciousness and trance states), education or experience, and the like.

Although people ordinarily use speech in dealing with other persons (or animals), when people swear they do not always mean to communicate anything to anyone, and sometimes in expressing urgent emotions or desires (...)
Researchers study many different aspects of speech: speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map heard spoken words onto the vocalizations needed to recreate them, which plays a key role in children's enlargement of their vocabulary, and what different areas of the human brain, (...)
In speech repetition, speech being heard is quickly turned from sensory input into motor instructions needed for its immediate or delayed vocal imitation (in phonological memory). This type of mapping plays a key role in enabling children to expand their spoken vocabulary.(...)

Speech act

A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication. According to Kent Bach, "almost any speech act is really the performance of several acts at once, distinguished by different aspects of the speaker's intention: there is the act of saying something, what one does in saying it, such as requesting or promising, and how one is trying to affect one's audience". The contemporary use of the term goes back to J. L. Austin's development of performative utterances and his theory of locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts. Speech acts are commonly taken to include such acts as promising, ordering, greeting, warning, inviting and congratulating.


A speechwriter is a person who is hired to prepare and write speeches that will be delivered by another person.

Public speaking

Public speaking (also called oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience. This type of speech is deliberately structured with three general purposes: to inform, to persuade and to entertain. Public speaking is commonly understood as formal, face-to-face speaking of a single person to a group of listeners.[1] Public speaking can be governed by different rules and structures. For example, speeches about concepts do not necessarily have to be structured in any special way. However, there is a method behind giving it effectively. For this type of speech it would be good to describe that concept with examples that can relate to the audiences life. [2]

\\\\\\\\\\Imagined speech//////////

Imagined speech (silent speech or covert speech) is thinking in the form of sound – “hearing” one’s own voice silently to oneself, without the intentional movement of any extremities such as the lips, tongue, or hands.[1] Logically, imagined speech has been possible since the emergence of language, however, the phenomenon is most associated with the signal processing[2] and detection within electroencephalograph (EEG) data[3] as well as data obtained using alternative non-invasive, brain–computer interface (BCI) devices.[4]

Spatial hearing loss

Spatial hearing loss, refers to a form of deafness that is an inability to use spatial cues about where a sound originates from in space. This in turn affects the ability to understand speech in the presence of background noise.