Sh.Turkle

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The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit

The Second Self documents a moment in history when people from all walks of life (not just computer scientists and artificial intelligence researchers) were first confronted with machines whose behavior and mode of operation invited psychological interpretation and that, at the same time, incited them to think differently about human thought, memory, and understanding.


Growing Up with Computers: The Animation of the Machine

Does the machine know what it is doing? Does it have intentions, consciousness, feelings? the quality of the conversation, both psychological and philosophical Jean Piaget -the child as metaphysician.Children begin by understanding the world in terms of what they know best: themselves. In time the child learns that the stone falls because of gravity; And so a dichotomy is constructed: physical and psychological properties stand opposed to one another in two great systems. The physical is used to understand things, the psychological to understand people and animals. But the computer is a new kind of object—psychological, yet a thing. Computers as marginal objects. Matter, life, mind. The computer evokes feelings and thoughts related to life, death, and the limits of permissibility and control. Childhood animism. Pseudocrashers. Joseph Weizenbaum Eliza. The New Computer Cultures: The Mechanization of the Mind


Into a New Age