CLASS LIBRARY- GRAHAM HARWOOD
we are left with no option but to construct code that concretizes its opposition to this meagre lifestyle
we need to seek algorithmic grit for the finely oiled wheels of capital take the cash from the rich and turn it into clean drinking water
this is an anonymous has record to be filled with the price of clean water
CODE - FRIEDRICH KITTLER
codes by name and matter are what determine us today
they are the language of our time (precisely because the world and the matter code are much older)
codes materialise processes of encryption (materiality hales!!)
codes are not a peculiarity of a computer technology they are part of every communications technology, every transmission medim + codes became conceivable and feasible only after true alphabets(as opposed to mere ideograms or logograms)
greeks no but roman empire- the first secret message systems(suetonius, lives of the caesars)
Augustus, europes first striclty military express mail system
command, control, communications, intelligence -recent pentagons imperial moto
imperia, the orders of the emperor , were also known as codicilla, the word refering to the smal tablets of stipped wood coated with was in which letters could be inscribed( hayles materiality!!)
emperors code- the bound book of law
message transmission turned into data storage
why the technical meaning of the word code was able to obscure the legal meaning to such a degree?
modernity began with napoleon, optical telegraph , code napoleon
1838 samuel mors
input is bad if is longer than output
turing raised the question of the purpose for which computers where actually created and initially stated as the primary goal the decoding of the human language
whether everything in the world cna be encoed is written in the stars
is it possible to model as codes, down to syntax and semantics, all the languages that make us human.?
COMPUTING POWER- ron eglash
3 dimension of computing power--speed , interactivity(animals -interactivity, interactions with websites vary, interrealism effect)and memory( the users local hard drive memory has become augmented, web2.0 internet as operating system, large databases,
COPY- jussi parikka
copy in file management as a new phase of cultural reproduction
copy as part of copy paste as cultural technique and aestetic principle
INFORMATION- ted byfield
shanon, model for quantitatively measure the reduction of uncertainity in receving a communication and he refferd to that measure as information, "1948 a mathematial theory of communication"=> information is a measure of one's freedom of choice when one select a message from a universe of possible solutions
bateson information as the difference that makes the difference
LANGUAGE- florian cramer
software may process language and is constructed in language 2 layers of language in software: programming language, in which its written and the language implemented within the software as its symbolic controls. Natural language is what can be processed as data by software (but restricted to syntactical operations)
problematic of natural vs artificial languages terminology (nothing natural about spoken language, its a cultural construct and thus as artificial as any formal machine control language. machine languages term obscures also that they are human creations)
it programming languages are human languages for machine control they could be called cybernetic languages. but these languages can also be used outside machines (in progr. handbooks, in table jokes or as abstract formal languages for expressins logical construct as Hugh Kenners use of Pascal to explain aspects of Becketts writting)
computer control languages could be more broadly defines as syntactical languages as opposed to semantic languages (problematic also)
the semantics of computer control lang; resides in the symbols with which operations are denoted; english words like if , then, for, while, goto, print in conjuction with arithmetical and punctuation symbols (western english model, punctuation counts!!) , symbols like trash cans etc.
de Saussure states that signs of common human language are arbitrary because it is purely a cultural social convention that assignes phonemens to concepts.
limitations- what the human voice can pronounce --- what can be efficiently processed by the machines and of good use to humans
no symbols with which humans would not associate some meaning--symbols of computer do have semantics connotations. but symbols dont express meaning in their own terms. humans metaphorically read meaning into them through ASSOCIATIONS they make
turing completeness of a programming language- any computation can be express in it, means that every programming lang is just a riff on every other progr.language. in its most turing completiness a cclanguage is a language that executes as with magical and speculative concepts of language the word automaticaly performs the operation. the execution is the manipulation of a machine not a social performance based on human conventions. computer languages become performative only through the socia impact of the processes they trigger.
writting in comp.lang: phrasing instructions for an utter idiot
the very meaning of digitisation is to structure analog data as numbers and store them as numerical texts composed of dscrete parts.
all computer software controls are linguistic regardless of theri perceiveable shape, aplhanumerical writing, graphics, sound signals or whatever else.
the converse to utopian language designs occures when computers control languages get appropriated and used informally in every day culture .Jonathan swift. scientist on the flying island of lagado "would fe praise the beauty of a woman or any other animal ..by rhombs, parallelograms, ellipses, and other geometrical terms.
software as a whole is not only "code" but symbolic form involving cultural practises. Swift jonathan, gulivers travels
LISTS- ALISON ADAM
list, data structure
list making is often seen as a fundamental activity of modern society. (from list making to list beeing!!n) foucault and patrick tort claim that the production of lists (classificatiosn languages, races, animals and so on) is a defining feature of the development of modern science (emperors list)
latour says that the main job of the burreocrat is to construct lists that can then be shuffled around and compared.
through lists we order and control ourseves and the world we inhabbit
foucault the order of things