Prototyping 2013-11-19 (Lens Based Media)

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Editing Levels

Editing helps to construct a film on three levels of film structure:

  • macrostructure (for example, the three act structure)
  • plot coherence (each scene is designed to advance the action but also to develop or tie off lines of activity set off earlier)
  • microstructure (For example, within a scene, we often find patterns of cutting—an establishing shot, reverse angles, close-ups, and so on—meshed with the developing dialogue. The audiovisual patterning carries the story along bit by bit, and these bits we take in and assemble into larger patterns of intelligibility)

Shot relationships

Spatial relationships

  • Definition: Spatial editing is when the relations between shots function to construct film space.
  • Characteristics: establishes a whole and separates it into parts OR establishes parts to create a whole.

Temporal relationships

  • Definition: Temporal editing is when the relations between shots function to control time.
  • Characteristics: works to convey the order, duration, or frequency of events. order: the temporal succession of events.

Continuity in spatial en temporal editing are classic examples of 50's Hollywood [1]

Rhythmic relationships

  • Definition: Rythmic editing is when the relations between shots function to control film pace.
  • Characteristics:
    • a shot's physical length corresponds to a measurable duration.
    • rythmic function occurs when several shot lengths form a discernable pattern.
    • equal length will create a steady metrical beat
    • lengthening shots can generate a gradually slowing tempo
    • successively shorter shots can create an accelerated tempo.

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Graphic relationships

  • Definition: the comparison of purely pictorial qualities from shot to shot independent of space and time.
  • Characteristics:
    • compares patterns of light and dark, line and shape, volumes and depths, movement and stasis.
    • graphic editing can achieve smooth continuity or abrupt contrast

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When does a cut work?

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  1. Emotion 51%
  2. Story 23%
  3. Rhythm 10%,
  4. Eye-Trace 7%
  5. Two-Dimensional plane of screen 5% (for instance, the 180 degree rule)
  6. Three-dimensional space of action 4% (continuity)

Editing Styles

continuity editing (match cut, eyeline cutting)

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Elliptical editing

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Constructive editing

Crosscutting or parallel editing

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Montage

not to be confused with montage sequence: It is not concerned with the depiction of a comprehensible spatial or temporal continuity as is found in the classical Hollywood continuity system. Strike example

Jump cutting

Goddard's Breathless: example

One shot!

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Cut types

  • Match cut
  • Jump Cut
  • L and J cuts [2] (as opposed to 'Dragnet' or tennismatch editing [3])
  • Fades
  • Wipes

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Assignment

For Dec 9th, create a 30 seconds or longer videoclip or photo sequence using one of the above editing styles, except the 'one shot', and include a minimum of 5 cuts.

Tutorials

Schedule