16-03-2011 Laura Amy Laurier

From Media Design: Networked & Lens-Based wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Simple Statistics

Legal terminology used in terms and conditions policies are often ambiguous and arbitrary. We want to highlight this ambiguity by showing the incongruity of definitions dependent on other factors often not implicitly explained. e.g the limits actually meant when the word 'unlimited' is used is paradoxical and often to give a false sense of comfort/security/complacency..


Bat.JPG


Word frequency distribution

from nltk import FreqDist
import urllib2
import nltk.util
import lxml.html.clean
from nltk.corpus import stopwords
from nltk.corpus import wordnet

english_stops = set(stopwords.words("english"))

urls = [
'http://goodiff.org/browser/europoker/www.europoker.net/en/Text/TermsOfService',
'http://goodiff.org/browser/paypal/www.paypal.com/fr/cgi-bin/webscr%3Fcmd%3Dp/gen/ua/policy_privacy-outside']

waystowrite = ''

#for each URL to scrape
for url in urls:
	print '**************************************************** SCRAPING URL'
	t = urllib2.urlopen(url)

	c = t.read()
	c = lxml.html.clean.clean_html(c)
	c = nltk.util.clean_html(c)

	q = c.split()
	q = [w for w in q if w.lower() not in english_stops and w.isalpha()]
	fdist = FreqDist(q)
	#get the most used word in the TOS
	voc = fdist.keys()
	print 'most used word in this TOS : '+voc[0]
	print

	#from all possible meanings of this word, grab the first one
	meanings = wordnet.synsets(voc[0])
	s = meanings[0]
	print 'first meaning of the most popular word in this TOS : '+str (s)+'('+s.definition+')'
	print

	#for that meaning, get all lemmas (all ways to write this meaning)
	var = [[x.name for x in s.lemmas] for s in wordnet.synsets(voc[0])]
	for s in var:
		for w in s:
			print 'lemma : '+ str (w)
		print

And the output :

**************************************************** SCRAPING URL
most used word in this TOS : SITE

first meaning of the most popular word in this TOS : Synset('site.n.01')(the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located))

lemma : site
lemma : land_site

lemma : site
lemma : situation

lemma : web_site
lemma : website
lemma : internet_site
lemma : site

lemma : locate
lemma : place
lemma : site

**************************************************** SCRAPING URL
most used word in this TOS : information

first meaning of the most popular word in this TOS : Synset('information.n.01')(a message received and understood)

lemma : information
lemma : info

lemma : information

lemma : information

lemma : data
lemma : information

lemma : information
lemma : selective_information
lemma : entropy






from nltk import FreqDist
from matplotlib import *
import urllib2
from nltk.corpus import stopwords
n
english_stops = set(stopwords.words("english"))

 
t = "** 20.1 ** SITE shall not be responsible for any failure to perform due to unforeseen circumstances or to causes beyond our reasonable control, including but not limited to: acts of God, such as fire, flood, earthquakes, hurricanes, tropical storms or other natural disasters; war, riot, arson, embargoes, acts of civil or military authority, or terrorism; fiber cuts; strikes, or shortages in transportation, facilities, fuel, energy, labor or materials; failure of the telecommunications or information services infrastructure; hacking, SPAM, or any failure of a computer, server or software, including Y2K errors or omissions, for so long as such event continues to delay the SITE's performance.   "
 
words = t.split()
words = [w for w in words if w not in english_stops]
fdist = FreqDist(words)
 
voc = fdist.keys() 
 
print voc[:10]


Search Results

word strings according to frequency occurrence


site may terms use service agree materials information shall without third access services contained including right name party using otherwise

google information privacy may personal policy services use access provide cookies data process sites associated including security information application certain

information google privacy products center web privacy use chrome faq goodiff help provide advertising history home policy revision service toolkit

information information personal postrank may use site privacy us policy cookies collect contact data privacy provide third ip browser identifiable

postrank use otherwise terms service site available content may agree without information damages postrank site services access content make post

Ideas

I really like the approach of showing ambiguity or paradox in legal document. Maybe showing the least used words between all the legal documents could show also the "concept" or words that some companies doesn't want to show to too much in their legal documents.