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The concept of immaterial labor refers to two different aspects of labor. On the one hand, as regards the "informational content" of the commodity, it refers directly to the changes taking place in workers' labor processes in big companies in the industrial and tertiary sectors, where the skills involved in direct labor are increasingly skills involving cybernetics and computer control (and horizontal and vertical communi- cation). On the other hand, as regards the activity that produces the "cultural con- tent" of the commodity, immaterial labor involves a series of activities that are not normally recognized as "work" — in other words, the kinds of activities involved in defining and fixing cultural and artistic standards, fashions, tastes, consumer norms, and, more strategically, public opinion.

these activities have since the end of the 1970s become the domain of what we have come to define as "mass intellectuality."

Manual labor is increasingly coming to involve procedures that could be defined as "intellectual," and the new communications technologies increasingly require subjectivities that are rich in knowledge. It is not simply that intellectual labor has become subjected to the norms of capitalist production. What has happened is that a new "mass intellectu- ality" has come into being, created out of a combination of the demands of capital- ist production and the forms of "self-valorization" that the struggle against work has produced. The old dichotomy between "mental and manual labor," or between "material labor and immaterial labor," risks failing to grasp the new nature of pro- ductive activity, which takes this separation on board and transforms it. The split between conception and execution, between labor and creativity, between author and audience, is simultaneously transcended within the "labor process" and reim- posed as political command within the "process of valorization."

The Restructured Worker

a worker's work increasingly involves, at various levels, an ability to choose among different alternatives and thus a degree of responsibility regarding decision making. What modern management techniques are looking for is for "the worker's soul to become part of the factory." The worker's personality and subjectivity have to be made susceptible to organization and command. It is around immateriality that the quality and quantity of labor are organized. This transfor- mation of working-class labor into a labor of control, of handling information, into a decision-making capacity that involves the investment of subjectivity, affects work- ers in varying ways according to their positions within the factory hierarchy,

We arrive at a point where a collective learning process becomes the heart of productivity, because it is no longer a matter of finding different ways of composing or organizing already existing job functions, but of looking for new ones.

The capitalist needs to find an unmediated way of establishing command over subjectivity itself; the prescription and definition of tasks transforms into a prescription of subjectivities. The new slogan of Western societies is that we should all "become subjects." , it becomes necessary for the subject's competence in the areas of management, communication, and creativity to be made compatible with the conditions of "production for pro- duction's sake." Thus the slogan "become subjects," far from eliminating the antagonism between hierarchy and cooperation, between autonomy and command, actually re-poses the antagonism at a higher level, because it both mobilizes and clashes with the very personality of the individual worker.

In fact, 

employers are extremely worried by the double problem this creates: on one hand, they are forced to recognize the autonomy and freedom of labor as the only possi- ble form of cooperation in production, but on the other hand, at the same time, they are obliged (a life-and-death necessity for the capitalist) not to "redistribute" the power that the new quality of labor and its organization imply.

Second, if it is no longer possible to lay down and specify jobs and responsi- bilities rigidly (in the way that was once done with "scientific" studies of work), but if, on the contrary, jobs now require cooperation and collective coordination, then the subjects of that production must be capable of communication—they must be active participants within a work team.

In the young worker, however, the "precarious" worker, and the unemployed youth, we are dealing with a pure virtuality, a capacity that is as yet undetermined but that already shares all the characteristics of postindustrial pro- ductive subjectivity.

'Immaterial Labor" in the Classic Definition

The activities of this kind of immaterial labor force us to question the classic definitions of work and workforce, because they com- bine the results of various different types of work skill: intellectual skills, as regards the cultural-informational content; manual skills for the ability to combine creativ- ity, imagination, and technical and manual labor; and entrepreneurial skills in the management of social relations and the structuring of that social cooperation of which they are a part. Immaterial labor is not obviously apparent to the eye, because it is not defined by the four walls of a factory.

The cycle of production comes into operation only when it is required by the capitalist; once the job has been done, the cycle dissolves back into the networks and flows that make possible the reproduction and enrichment of its productive capacities.

Precariousness, hyperexploitation, mobility, and hierarchy are the most obvious characteristics of metropolitan immaterial labor.

Behind the label of the independent "self-employed" worker, what we actually find is an intellectual proletarian, but who is recognized as such only by the employers who exploit him

It is worth noting that in this kind of working existence it becomes increas- ingly difficult to distinguish leisure time from work time.

The particularity of the com- 

modity produced through immaterial labor (its essential use value being given by its value as informational and cultural content) consists in the fact that it is not destroyed in the act of consumption, but rather it enlarges, transforms, and creates the "ideological" and cultural environment of the consumer. This commodity does not produce the physical capacity of labor power; instead, it transforms the person who uses it. Immaterial labor produces first and foremost a "social relationship" (a relationship of innovation, production, and consumption).

The Autonomy of the Productive Synergies of Immaterial Labor

Among economists, the predominant view of this problematic can be expressed in a single statement: immaterial labor operates within the forms of orga- nization that the centralization of industry allows. Moving from this common basis, there are two differing schools of thought: one is the extension of neoclassical anal- ysis; the other is that of systems theory.

the new dimensions of organization one should introduce not only cooperation and intensity of labor, but also other analytic variables (anthropological variables? immaterial variables?) and that on this basis one might introduce other objectives of optimization and so forth.

The new phenomenologies of labor, the new dimensions of organization, communication, the potentiality of spontaneous synergies, the autonomy of the subjects involved, and the indepen- dence of the networks.

Today, with the new data available, we find the microeconomy in revolt against the macroeconomy, and the classical model is corroded by a new and irreducible anthropological reality.

In more developed systemic theories, organization is conceived as an ensemble of factors, both mate- rial and immaterial, both individual and collective, that can permit a given group to reach objectives.

It becomes possible to look at things from the point of view of social synergies, and immaterial labor can be taken on board by virtue of its global efficacy.

It can lead us to 

define, at a territorial level, a space for a radical autonomy of the productive syner- gies of immaterial labor.

A poly- 

morphous self-employed autonomous work has emerged as the dominant form, a kind of "intellectual worker" who is him- or herself an entrepreneur, inserted within a market that is constantly shifting and within networks that are changeable in time and space.

The Cycle of Immaterial Production Up to this point I have been analyzing and constructing the concept of immaterial labor from a point of view that could be defined, so to speak, as "microeconomic."

I want to demonstrate in particular how the process of valoriza- tion tends to be identified with the process of the production of social communica- tion and how the two stages (valorization and communication) immediately have a social and territorial dimension. The concept of immaterial labor presupposes and results in an enlargement of productive cooperation that even includes the produc- tion and reproduction of communication and hence of its most important contents: subjectivity.

If Fordism integrated consumption into the cycle of the reproduc- tion of capital, post-Fordism integrates communication into it. From a strictly eco- nomic point of view, the cycle of reproduction of immaterial labor dislocates the production-consumption relationship as it is defined as much by the "virtuous Keynesian circle"

The consumer is no longer limited to consuming commodities (de- stroying them in the act of consumption). On the contrary, his or her consumption should be productive in accordance to the necessary conditions and the new prod- ucts.

Consumption is then first of all a consumption of information. Consumption is no longer only the "realization" of a product, but a real and proper social process that for the moment is defined with the term communication.

Large-Scale Industry and Services

The postindustrial enterprise and economy are founded on the manipulation of information. Rather than ensuring (as nineteenth-century enter- prises did) the surveillance of the inner workings of the production process and the supervision of the markets of raw materials (labor included), business is focused on the terrain outside of the production process: sales and the relationship with the consumer.

It always leans more toward commercialization and financing than toward production.

Prior to being manufactured, a product must be sold, even in "heavy" 

industries such as automobile manufacturing; a car is put into production only after the sales network orders it.

It mobilizes important communication and marketing strate- gies in order to gather information (recognizing the tendencies of the market) and circulate it (constructing a market).

Innovation is no longer sub- 

ordinated only to the rationalization of labor, but also to commercial imperatives. It seems, then, that the postindustrial commodity is the result of a creative process that involves both the producer and the consumer.

Services banking insurance

We are witnessing today not really a growth of services, but rather a development of the "relations of service." consumer intervents in the developing of product.

There has been thus a shift of human resources toward the outer part of business.

the more it distances itself from the model of industrial organization of the relationship between production and consumption.

direct consequences for the organization of the Taylorist labor of produc- tion of services, because it draws into question both the contents of labor and the division of labor (and thus the relationship between conception and execution loses its unilateral character).

Immaterial labor

If production today is directly the production of a social rela- tion, then the "raw material" of immaterial labor is subjectivity and the "ideologi- cal" environment in which this subjectivity lives and reproduces. The production of subjectivity ceases to be only an instrument of social control (for the reproduc- tion of mercantile relationships) and becomes directly productive, because the goal of our postindustrial society is to construct the consumer/communicator — and to construct it as "active."

Immaterial workers (those who work in advertising, fash- ion, marketing, television, cybernetics, and so forth) satisfy a demand by the con- sumer and at the same time establish that demand.

Now, the post-Taylorist mode of production is defined precisely by putting subjectivity to work both in the activation of productive cooperation and in the production of the "cultural" contents of commodities.

The Aesthetic Model

If in the past communication was organized fundamentally by means of language and the insti- 

tutions of ideological and literary/artistic production, today, because it is invested with industrial production, communication is reproduced by means of specific tech- nological schemes (knowledge, thought, image, sound, and language reproduction technologies) and by means of forms of organization and "management" that are bearers of a new mode of production.

The "author" must lose its individual dimension and be trans- formed into an industrially organized production process (with a division of labor, investments, orders, and so forth), "reproduction" becomes a mass reproduction organized according to the imperatives of profitability, and the audience ("recep- tion") tends to become the consumer/communicator.

I should emphasize, however, 

that the subsumption of this process under capitalist logic and the transformation of its products into commodities does not abolish the specificity of aesthetic pro- duction, that is to say, the creative relationship between author and audience.

The Specific Differences of the Immaterial Labor Cycle

immaterial labor forces us to question the classical definitions of work and 

workforce, because it results from a synthesis of different types of know-how: intel- lectual skills, manual skills, and entrepreneurial skills. Immaterial labor constitutes itself in immediately collective forms that exist as networks and flows.

The "ideological product" becomes in every respect a com- modity. The term ideological does not characterize the product as a "reflection" of reality, as false or true consciousness of reality. Ideological products produce, on the contrary, new stratifications of reality; they are the intersection where human power, knowledge, and action meet.

The transformation of the product into a commodity cannot abolish this double process of "creativity"; it must rather assume it as it is, and attempt to control it and subordinate it to its own values. What the transformation of the product into a commodity can- not remove, then, is the character of event, the open process of creation that is estab- lished between immaterial labor and the public and organized by communication.

First, values are "put to work." The transformation of the ideological product into a commodity distorts or deflects the social imaginary that is produced in the forms of life, but at the same time, commodity production must recognize itself as powerless as far as its own production is concerned. The second conse- quence is that the forms of life (in their collective and cooperative forms) are now the source of innovation.

The creative and innovative elements are tightly linked to the values that only the forms of life produce. Creativity and productivity in postindustrial societies reside, on the one hand, in the dialectic between the forms of life and values they produce and, on the other, in the activities of subjects that constitute them. The legitimation that the (Schumpeterian) entrepreneur found in his or her capacity for innovation has lost its foundation. Because the capitalist entrepreneur does not produce the forms and contents of immaterial labor, he or she does not even produce innovation. For eco- nomics there remains only the possibility of managing and regulating the activity of immaterial labor and creating some devices for the control and creation of the public/consumer by means of the control of communication and information tech- nologies and their organizational processes.

Creation and Intellectual Labor

The first, Simmel's, remain completely invested in the division between manual labor and intellectual labor and give us a theory of the creativity of intellectual labor.

Simmel, in effect, explains the function of "fashion" by means of the phenomenon of imitation or distinction as regulated and com- manded by class relationships. Thus the superior levels of the middle classes are the ones that create fashion, and the lower classes attempt to imitate them.


here functions like a barrier that incessantly comes up because it is incessantly bat- tered down. What is interesting for this discussion is that, according to this con- ception, the immaterial labor of creation is limited to a specific social group and is not diffused except through imitation.

Bakhtin, on the contrary, defines immaterial labor as the superseding of the division between "material labor and intellectual labor" and dem- onstrates how creativity is a social process. In fact, the work on "aesthetic produc- tion" of Bakhtin and the rest of the Leningrad circle has this same social focus.