--Foucault notes--

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function of disciplin is to "train" it binds levy and select (cntrl)

instead of bending all its subjects, it separates, analyses, differentiates, procedure of decomposition to the point of necessary and sufficient single

It "trains" the moving, confused, useless multitudes of bodies and forces into a mutiplicity of individual elements- small, separate cells, organic autonomies, genetic identities and continuities.

Discipline is a specific powe that regards both as objects and as instuments of its exercise.

it uses simple instruments like : hierarchical observation, normalizing judgement.


rearaging the space

A whole problematic then develops: that of an architecture that is no longer built simply to be seen (as with the ostentation of palaces), but to permit an internal, articulated and detailed control - to render visible those who are inside it; an architecture that would operate to transform the others.

schools, hospitals, pris0ns all have the same idea for architecture and landshafting. towards observation and control

Factory architectury changes lead to manufactory changes

===supervision 1.before done by outside inspectors 2.after, specialized personal constantly present ->supervisiors - agents directly dependent on the owner

not a soul is spent uselessly, not a day is lost surveilance thus becomes a decisive econimic operator both as an internal part of the production machinery and as a specific mechanism in the disciplinary power.


the same movement can be found in reorganisation of the elementary teachings.

changing the system so it is in favor of the disciplinary system, and proveds people that are used later as weapons of control. raised by the system afterwards dedicated to the system.

the role of the teacher 1.educational, pedagogical 2.surveilance role

The power of hierarchized surveillanceas a property; it functions like a piece of machinery. And, although it is true as a whole that produces 'power' and distributes individuals in the permanent and continous field. This enables the disciplinary to be both absolutely indisceet, since it is everywhere and always alert, since by its very principle it leabes no zone of shade and constantly supervises the very individuals who are entrusted with the task of supervising; absolutely "discreet"

Normalizing judgement at the heart of all disciplinary systems functions a small penal mechanism.

The workshop, the school, the school, the army were subjects to a whole micro-penality of time (latenesses, absences, interuptions of tasks)

The orde that the disciplinary punishments mus enfoce is of a mixed nature it is an artificial ordel, explicityl laid down by a law, a programme, a set of regulations. In a disciplinary punishment involves a double juridico-natural reference.


Disciplinary punishment has the function of reducing gaps. It must therefore be essentially corrective

punishment: fines, flogging, solitar confinement intensified multiplied forms of training, several times repeated

In the discipline, punishment is only one element of a double system: gratification-punishment. The teacher 'must avoid' as far as possible, the use of punishment; on the contrary, he must endavour to make rewards more frequent than penalies, the lazy being more encouraged by the desire to be rewarded in the same way as the diligent than by the fear of punishment.

First the definition of behaviour and performance on the basis of the two opposed values of good and evil; instead of the simple division of the prohibition as practised in penal justice, we have a distribution between a positivepole and a negative.

What we have here is a transposition of the sysytem of indulgences. and by the play of this quantification, this circulation of awards and debits, thanks to the continuous calculation ofplus and minus points, the disciplinary apparatuses hierarchized the 'good' and the 'bad' subjects in relation to one another.

a complex honorary system was developed classificatory,penal distribution is carried out as reports from teachers, officers, assistants... reports includes grade, moral qualities, behaviour

It brings five quite distinct operations into play: it refers individual action to a whole that is at once a field of comparison, a space of differentiation and the principle of a rule to be followed.

It introduces, through this 'value-giving' measure, the constrains of a conformity that must be achieved. The perpetual penality that traverses all pint and supervises every instant in the disciplinary institutions compares, differentiates, hierarchizes, homogenizes, excludes.



Like surveillance and with it normalization becomes one of the great instruments at the end of the classical age. For the marks that once indicated status, privilege and affiliation were increasingly replaced - or at least supplemented by a whole range of degrees of normality indicating membership of a homogeneous social body but also playing a part in classification, hierarchization and the distribution of rank.



it establishes over individuals a visibility through which one differentiates them and judges them.

The superimposition of the power relations and knowledge relations assumes in the examination all its visible brilliances.

the rising of the hospital from a poorhouse to a place of trining and if the correlation of knowledge, it represented a reversal therefore of the power relations and the constitution of a courpose of knowledge.

The examinations did not simply mark the end of an apprenticeship; it was one of its permanent factors; it was woven into it through a constantly repeated titual of power. transforming pupils into a field of knowledge, threw the examination.

The examination transformed the economy of visibility into the exercise of power. traditionally power was seen what was shown and what was manifested and paradoxically found the principle of ths force in the movement by which it deplyed that force.

Those who hold the power are hidden in shadows, only appear when they use the power. In discipline it is the subjects who have to be seen.

we are entering the age of the infinite examination and of compuls ry objectification.

The examination that places individuals in a field of surveillance also situates them in a network of writing, it engages them in a whole mass of documents that capture and fix them.

These codes were still very crude, both in quality and quantity, but they marked a first stage in the 'formalization' of the individual within power relation.

Thanks to the whole apparatus of writting that accompanied it, the examination opened up two correlative possibilities: firstly, the constitution of the individual as a descibable, analysable object, not in order to reduce him to 'specific' features, as did the naturalists in relation to living beings, but in order to maintain him in his individual features, in his particular evolution, in his own aptitudes or abilities, under the gaze of a permanent corpus of knowledge; and, secondly, the constitution of a overall phenomena, the description of groups, the characterization of collective facts, the calculation of the gaps between individuals, their distribution in a given 'population'.

3. The examination, surrounded by all its documentary techniques, makes each individual a 'case': a case which at one and the same time constidutes an object for a branch of knowledge and a hold for a branch of power.

The disciplinary sstem reversed the histogaphy of a person (chronicles of a man) , lowered the threshold of describable individuality and made of this description a means of control and a method of domination. No more a monument for future memory, it is a document for possible use. It is the examination which, by combinig hierarchical suveillance and normalizing judgement, assures the great extraction of forces and time, continuous genetic accumulation, optimum combination of aptitdes and thereby, the fabrication of cellular, organic, genetic and combinatoru individuality. with it are ritualized those discplines that may be characterized in a word by saying that they are a modality of power for which individual difference is relevant.

in a disciplinary regime individualization is descending: as [pwer becomes more anonymous and more functional, those on whom it is exercised tend to be more strongly individualized; it is exercied by surveillance rather than ceremonies, by observation rathen than by commenmorative accounts, by comparative measures that have the 'norm' as reference rather than genealogies giving ancestors as points f reference; by gaps rather than by deeds. in a system of discipline, the child is more individualized than the adult, the patient is more than the healthy man, the madman and the delinquent more then the normal.

asking the man how much of the child does he have in him? to find out what secret madness lies within him ^^

Mercantile society according to this view is represented as a contractual association of isolated juridical subjects.

The individual os no doubt the dictious atom of an "ideological" representation of society; but he is also a reality fabricated by this specific technology of power that I have called ' discipline'. Power produces reality; it produces domains of objects and rituals of truth. The indicidual and the knowledge that may be gained of hhim belong to this production.