Difference between revisions of "User:E.zn/rpi"

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====_ _ _ _ _ Download .img====
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Download .img====
 
<br>
 
<br>
:: Download RPi image from [https://www.raspberrypi.org/software/operating-systems/#raspberry-pi-os-32-bit raspberrypi.org] either manually or using <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">wget</code>. For instance, the latest release of Raspberry Pi OS Lite at the time of writing this is <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip</code>
+
:: Download RPi image from [https://www.raspberrypi.org/software/operating-systems/#raspberry-pi-os-32-bit raspberrypi.org] either manually or using <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">wget</code>. For instance, the latest release of Raspberry Pi OS Lite at the time of writing this is <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip</code>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue; color:red; width:90%">wget https://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspios_lite_armhf/images/raspios_lite_armhf-2021-01-12/2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">wget https://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspios_lite_armhf/images/raspios_lite_armhf-2021-01-12/2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip</pre>
  
  
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Verify Hash Key====
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Verify Hash Key====
 
<br>
 
<br>
:: Hash key [ sha256 ] is provided on the website, next to the RPi image info. For <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip</code>, it's <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">d49d6fab1b8e533f7efc40416e98ec16019b9c034bc89c59b83d0921c2aefeef</code>.
+
:: Hash key [ sha256 ] is provided on the website, next to the RPi image info. For <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip</code>, it's <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">d49d6fab1b8e533f7efc40416e98ec16019b9c034bc89c59b83d0921c2aefeef</code>.
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sha256sum ~/Downloads/2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sha256sum ~/Downloads/2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip</pre>
  
:::::::[[File:RPi_1.png|700px]]
+
::::::::[[File:RPi_1.png|700px]]
 
<br clear=all>
 
<br clear=all>
  
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Unzip====
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Unzip====
 
<br>
 
<br>
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">unzip 2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">unzip 2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip</pre>
  
  
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Check mounted devices====
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Check mounted devices====
 
<br>
 
<br>
::When you have an SD card inserted in your laptop, it will show up as a partition[s] on the list of mounted devices : <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">/dev/mmcblk0<#></code> [in my case: <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">/dev/mmcblk0</code>]
+
::When you have an SD card inserted in your laptop, it will show up as a partition[s] on the list of mounted devices : <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">/dev/mmcblk0<#></code> [in my case: <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">/dev/mmcblk0</code>]
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">df -h</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">df -h</pre>
  
:::::::[[File:RPi_2.png|700px]]
+
::::::::[[File:RPi_2.png|700px]]
 
<br clear=all>
 
<br clear=all>
  
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Unmount====
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Unmount====
 
<br>
 
<br>
::Unmount the SD card partition[s] [in this case it's only <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">/dev/mmcblk0</code>]
+
::Unmount the SD card partition[s] [in this case it's only <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">/dev/mmcblk0</code>]
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">umount /dev/mmcblk0</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">umount /dev/mmcblk0</pre>
  
  
 
====_ _ _ _ _ .img-to-SD====
 
====_ _ _ _ _ .img-to-SD====
 
<br>
 
<br>
:: To write the image to the SD card, run the following command, but make sure  <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">of=</code> argument output is a correct device name, meaning the whole SD card and not one of its partitions!  
+
:: To write the image to the SD card, run the following command, but make sure  <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">of=</code> argument output is a correct device name, meaning the whole SD card and not one of its partitions!  
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo dd bs=4M status=progress if=2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.img of=/dev/mmcblk0</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo dd bs=4M status=progress if=2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.img of=/dev/mmcblk0</pre>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo sync</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo sync</pre>
  
  
 
====_ _ _ _ _ ssh file====
 
====_ _ _ _ _ ssh file====
 
<br>
 
<br>
::Create a file named <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">ssh</code> in a boot partition
+
::Create a file named <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">ssh</code> in a boot partition
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">cd /media/ezn/boot</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">cd /media/ezn/boot</pre>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">touch ssh</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">touch ssh</pre>
  
 
::SD card is good to go. Insert the card in RPi before powering it on, and shutdown the Raspberry Pi before unplugging the card.
 
::SD card is good to go. Insert the card in RPi before powering it on, and shutdown the Raspberry Pi before unplugging the card.
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<br>
 
<br>
  
::Default user: <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">pi</code>
+
::Default user: <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">pi</code>
::Default pwd: <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">raspberry</code>
+
::Default pwd: <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">raspberry</code>
::Default hostname: <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">raspberrypi</code>
+
::Default hostname: <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">raspberrypi</code>
  
 
====_ _ _ _ _ ssh====
 
====_ _ _ _ _ ssh====
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::Connect your RPi to a router with an ethernet cable. To try to ssh into it using the default credentials
 
::Connect your RPi to a router with an ethernet cable. To try to ssh into it using the default credentials
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">ssh pi@raspberrypi</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">ssh pi@raspberrypi</pre>
  
 
::If it didn't work, find the RPi IP address first. For this reason, scan your local network
 
::If it didn't work, find the RPi IP address first. For this reason, scan your local network
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">nmap -sn 192.168.1.1-255</pre>   
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">nmap -sn 192.168.1.1-255</pre>   
  
:::::::[[File:RPi_3.png|700px]]
+
::::::::[[File:RPi_3.png|700px]]
 
<br clear=all>
 
<br clear=all>
  
::I'm gonna use my RPi IP address [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">192.168.1.4</code>], and default username [<code style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:#DDE3DB">pi</code>] and password [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">raspberry</code>] to ssh into it
+
::I'm gonna use my RPi IP address [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">192.168.1.4</code>], and default username [<code style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">pi</code>] and password [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">raspberry</code>] to ssh into it
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">ssh pi@192.168.1.4</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">ssh pi@192.168.1.4</pre>
  
:::::::[[File:RPi_4.png|700px]]
+
::::::::[[File:RPi_4.png|700px]]
 
<br clear=all>
 
<br clear=all>
  
::In case you get the following message: <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">Wi-Fi is currently blocked by rfkill</code>
+
::In case you get the following message: <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">Wi-Fi is currently blocked by rfkill</code>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo rfkill unblock 0</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo rfkill unblock 0</pre>
  
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Hostname====
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Hostname====
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
::To change the hostname from the default <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">raspberrypi</code> to your desired one
+
::To change the hostname from the default <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">raspberrypi</code> to your desired one
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo raspi-config</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo raspi-config</pre>
  
::Go to <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">System Options</code>, select <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">Hostname</code> and rename it. Then <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB"><Ok></code> and <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB"><Finish></code>. You'll be asked to reboot the RPi.
+
::Go to <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">System Options</code>, select <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">Hostname</code> and rename it. Then <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;"><Ok></code> and <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;"><Finish></code>. You'll be asked to reboot the RPi.
  
  
Line 119: Line 119:
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
::Switch to <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">root</code>
+
::Switch to <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">root</code>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo -i</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo -i</pre>
  
::To add a user [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">ezn</code>, for instance]
+
::To add a user [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">ezn</code>, for instance]
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">adduser ezn</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">adduser ezn</pre>
  
 
::You'll be prompted to set a password for this user
 
::You'll be prompted to set a password for this user
  
::To add <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">ezn</code> to a sudo group
+
::To add <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">ezn</code> to a sudo group
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">adduser ezn sudo</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">adduser ezn sudo</pre>
  
::To check if <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">ezn</code> is indeed sudo
+
::To check if <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">ezn</code> is indeed sudo
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">id ezn</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">id ezn</pre>
  
::If <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">ezn</code> is a sudo user, the command should output <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">27(sudo)</code> at the end of the line, after <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">uid</code>, <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">gid</code> and <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">groups</code>.  
+
::If <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">ezn</code> is a sudo user, the command should output <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">27(sudo)</code> at the end of the line, after <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">uid</code>, <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">gid</code> and <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">groups</code>.  
  
 
+
::::::::[[File:RPi_5.png|700px]]
:::::::[[File:RPi_5.png|700px]]
 
 
<br clear=all>
 
<br clear=all>
  
 
::To switch to a specific user
 
::To switch to a specific user
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo su - ezn</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo su - ezn</pre>
 
 
  
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Remove default pi user ====
 
====_ _ _ _ _ Remove default pi user ====
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
::Since during the configuration, we initially logged in as <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">pi</code>, we need to log out from it first and then delete it. So, run <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">logout</code> or <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">exit</code> until you're completely out and then ssh back into RPi as <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">ezn</code>
+
::Since during the configuration, we initially logged in as <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">pi</code>, we need to log out from it first and then delete it. So, run <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">logout</code> or <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">exit</code> until you're completely out and then ssh back into RPi as <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">ezn</code>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">ssh ezn@192.168.1.4</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">ssh ezn@192.168.1.4</pre>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo -i</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo -i</pre>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">deluser pi</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">deluser pi</pre>
  
 
::To check a list of users
 
::To check a list of users
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">cut -d: -f1 /etc/passwd</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">cut -d: -f1 /etc/passwd</pre>
  
  
Line 167: Line 165:
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo -i</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo -i</pre>
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">echo "LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8" >> /etc/environment</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">echo "LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8" >> /etc/environment</pre>
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">echo "en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8" >> /etc/locale.gen</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">echo "en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8" >> /etc/locale.gen</pre>
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">echo "LANG=en_US.UTF-8" > /etc/locale.conf</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">echo "LANG=en_US.UTF-8" > /etc/locale.conf</pre>
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">locale-gen en_US.UTF-8</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">locale-gen en_US.UTF-8</pre>
  
  
Line 179: Line 177:
 
::To generate a public/private key pair, on your machine [laptop] run  
 
::To generate a public/private key pair, on your machine [laptop] run  
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -b 320</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -b 320</pre>
  
::Both public [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">id_ed25519.pub</code>] and private [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">id_ed25519</code>] keys are stored in a hidden <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">.ssh</code> folder in the <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">Home</code> directory.
+
::Both public [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">id_ed25519.pub</code>] and private [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">id_ed25519</code>] keys are stored in a hidden <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">.ssh</code> folder in the <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">Home</code> directory.
  
::To securely copy the contents of the public key into an <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">authorized_keys</code> file on your RPi [run this on your machine]
+
::To securely copy the contents of the public key into an <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">authorized_keys</code> file on your RPi [run this on your machine]
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">cat ~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub | ssh ezn@192.168.1.4 "mkdir -p ~/.ssh && chmod 700 ~/.ssh && cat >>  ~/.ssh/authorized_keys"</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">cat ~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub | ssh ezn@192.168.1.4 "mkdir -p ~/.ssh && chmod 700 ~/.ssh && cat >>  ~/.ssh/authorized_keys"</pre>
  
  
Line 191: Line 189:
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config</pre>
  
 
::Uncomment  
 
::Uncomment  
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">PermitRootLogin prohibit-password</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">PermitRootLogin prohibit-password</pre>
  
 
::Uncomment  
 
::Uncomment  
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">PubkeyAuthentication yes</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">PubkeyAuthentication yes</pre>
  
::Uncomment and set it to <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">no</code>
+
::Uncomment and set it to <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">no</code>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">PasswordAuthentication no</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">PasswordAuthentication no</pre>
  
 
::Save changes
 
::Save changes
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">Ctrl + s</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">Ctrl + s</pre>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">Ctrl + x</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">Ctrl + x</pre>
  
  
Line 215: Line 213:
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart</pre>
  
  
Line 221: Line 219:
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo reboot</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo reboot</pre>
  
  
Line 227: Line 225:
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
::To ssh w/a Host name [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">watermelon</code>, for example] as opposed to <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">ssh ezn@192.168.1.4</code> or <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">ssh ezn@kibkadar</code>, you'll need to modify the <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">config</code> file in <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB">.ssh</code> directory. Open it:
+
::To ssh w/a Host name [<code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">watermelon</code>, for example] as opposed to <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">ssh ezn@192.168.1.4</code> or <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">ssh ezn@kibkadar</code>, you'll need to modify the <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">config</code> file in <code style="background-color:#DDE3DB; border-color:#DDE3DB; color:blue;">.ssh</code> directory. Open it:
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">sudo nano ~/.ssh/config</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">sudo nano ~/.ssh/config</pre>
  
  
Line 242: Line 240:
 
::Serveraliveinterval 30
 
::Serveraliveinterval 30
 
</div>
 
</div>
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">Ctrl + s</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">Ctrl + s</pre>
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">Ctrl + x</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">Ctrl + x</pre>
  
  
 
::Now you can ssh as Host
 
::Now you can ssh as Host
  
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:blue;  color:red; width:90%">ssh watermelon</pre>
+
::<pre style="background-color:#E6E6E6; border-color:blue; color:red; width:90%">ssh watermelon</pre>
  
  
  
 
</div>
 
</div>
 
 
  
 
<p>-----------------------------------------------------------------------------</p>
 
<p>-----------------------------------------------------------------------------</p>

Latest revision as of 23:16, 1 June 2021





Raspberry Pi is a single-board computer


___________________________________SD card


_ _ _ _ _ Download .img


Download RPi image from raspberrypi.org either manually or using wget. For instance, the latest release of Raspberry Pi OS Lite at the time of writing this is 2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip
wget https://downloads.raspberrypi.org/raspios_lite_armhf/images/raspios_lite_armhf-2021-01-12/2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip


_ _ _ _ _ Verify Hash Key


Hash key [ sha256 ] is provided on the website, next to the RPi image info. For 2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip, it's d49d6fab1b8e533f7efc40416e98ec16019b9c034bc89c59b83d0921c2aefeef.
sha256sum ~/Downloads/2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip
RPi 1.png


_ _ _ _ _ Unzip


unzip 2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.zip


_ _ _ _ _ Check mounted devices


When you have an SD card inserted in your laptop, it will show up as a partition[s] on the list of mounted devices : /dev/mmcblk0<#> [in my case: /dev/mmcblk0]
df -h
RPi 2.png


_ _ _ _ _ Unmount


Unmount the SD card partition[s] [in this case it's only /dev/mmcblk0]
umount /dev/mmcblk0


_ _ _ _ _ .img-to-SD


To write the image to the SD card, run the following command, but make sure of= argument output is a correct device name, meaning the whole SD card and not one of its partitions!
sudo dd bs=4M status=progress if=2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.img of=/dev/mmcblk0
sudo sync


_ _ _ _ _ ssh file


Create a file named ssh in a boot partition
cd /media/ezn/boot
touch ssh
SD card is good to go. Insert the card in RPi before powering it on, and shutdown the Raspberry Pi before unplugging the card.

___________________________________RPi


Default user: pi
Default pwd: raspberry
Default hostname: raspberrypi

_ _ _ _ _ ssh


Connect your RPi to a router with an ethernet cable. To try to ssh into it using the default credentials
ssh pi@raspberrypi
If it didn't work, find the RPi IP address first. For this reason, scan your local network
nmap -sn 192.168.1.1-255
RPi 3.png


I'm gonna use my RPi IP address [192.168.1.4], and default username [pi] and password [raspberry] to ssh into it
ssh pi@192.168.1.4
RPi 4.png


In case you get the following message: Wi-Fi is currently blocked by rfkill
sudo rfkill unblock 0

_ _ _ _ _ Hostname


To change the hostname from the default raspberrypi to your desired one
sudo raspi-config
Go to System Options, select Hostname and rename it. Then <Ok> and <Finish>. You'll be asked to reboot the RPi.


_ _ _ _ _ Add a user


Switch to root
sudo -i
To add a user [ezn, for instance]
adduser ezn
You'll be prompted to set a password for this user
To add ezn to a sudo group
adduser ezn sudo
To check if ezn is indeed sudo
id ezn
If ezn is a sudo user, the command should output 27(sudo) at the end of the line, after uid, gid and groups.
RPi 5.png


To switch to a specific user
sudo su - ezn

_ _ _ _ _ Remove default pi user


Since during the configuration, we initially logged in as pi, we need to log out from it first and then delete it. So, run logout or exit until you're completely out and then ssh back into RPi as ezn
ssh ezn@192.168.1.4
sudo -i
deluser pi
To check a list of users
cut -d: -f1 /etc/passwd


_ _ _ _ _ Setting locale


sudo -i
echo "LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8" >> /etc/environment
echo "en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8" >> /etc/locale.gen
echo "LANG=en_US.UTF-8" > /etc/locale.conf
locale-gen en_US.UTF-8


_ _ _ _ _ public/private keys


To generate a public/private key pair, on your machine [laptop] run
ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -b 320
Both public [id_ed25519.pub] and private [id_ed25519] keys are stored in a hidden .ssh folder in the Home directory.
To securely copy the contents of the public key into an authorized_keys file on your RPi [run this on your machine]
cat ~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub | ssh ezn@192.168.1.4 "mkdir -p ~/.ssh && chmod 700 ~/.ssh && cat >>  ~/.ssh/authorized_keys"


_ _ _ _ _ Disable pwd and root login


sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config
Uncomment
PermitRootLogin prohibit-password
Uncomment
PubkeyAuthentication yes
Uncomment and set it to no
PasswordAuthentication no
Save changes
Ctrl + s
Ctrl + x


_ _ _ _ _ Reload SSH


sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart


_ _ _ _ _ Reboot


sudo reboot


_ _ _ _ _ Login with a Host name


To ssh w/a Host name [watermelon, for example] as opposed to ssh ezn@192.168.1.4 or ssh ezn@kibkadar, you'll need to modify the config file in .ssh directory. Open it:
sudo nano ~/.ssh/config


and add the following:
Host watermelon
User ezn
Hostname 192.168.1.4
Port 22
Identityfile /home/ezn/.ssh/id_ed25519
Serveraliveinterval 30
Ctrl + s
Ctrl + x


Now you can ssh as Host
ssh watermelon


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For Nginx and Tor setup >> instructions by Aymeric