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Revision as of 17:01, 27 January 2021

Raspberry Pi is a single-board computer

___________________________________SD card

_ _ _ _ _ Download .img

Download RPi image from either manually or using wget. For instance, the latest release of Raspberry Pi OS Lite at the time of writing this is

_ _ _ _ _ Verify Hash Key

Hash key [ sha256 ] is provided on the website, next to the RPi image info. For, it's d49d6fab1b8e533f7efc40416e98ec16019b9c034bc89c59b83d0921c2aefeef.
sha256sum ~/Downloads/
RPi 1.png

_ _ _ _ _ Unzip


_ _ _ _ _ Check mounted devices

When you have an SD card inserted in your laptop, it will show up as a partition[s] on the list of mounted devices : /dev/mmcblk0<#> [in my case: /dev/mmcblk0]
df -h
RPi 2.png

_ _ _ _ _ Unmount

Unmount the SD card partition[s] [in this case it's only /dev/mmcblk0]
umount /dev/mmcblk0

_ _ _ _ _ .img-to-SD

To write the image to the SD card, run the following command, but make sure of= argument output is a correct device name, meaning the whole SD card and not one of its partitions!
sudo dd bs=4M status=progress if=2021-01-11-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.img of=/dev/mmcblk0
sudo sync

_ _ _ _ _ ssh file

Create a file named ssh in a boot partition
cd /media/ezn/boot
touch ssh
SD card is good to go. Insert the card in RPi before powering it on, and shutdown the Raspberry Pi before unplugging the card.


Default user: pi
Default pwd: raspberry
Default hostname: raspberrypi

_ _ _ _ _ ssh

Connect your RPi to a router with an ethernet cable. To try to ssh into it using the default credentials
ssh pi@raspberrypi
If it didn't work, find the RPi IP address first. For this reason, scan your local network
nmap -sn
RPi 3.png

I'm gonna use my RPi IP address [], and default username [pi] and password [raspberry] to ssh into it
ssh pi@
RPi 4.png

In case you get the following message: Wi-Fi is currently blocked by rfkill
sudo rfkill unblock 0

_ _ _ _ _ Hostname

To change the hostname from the default raspberrypi to your desired one
sudo raspi-config
Go to System Options, select Hostname and rename it. Then <Ok> and <Finish>. You'll be asked to reboot the RPi.

_ _ _ _ _ Add a user

Switch to root
sudo -i
To add a user [ezn, for instance]
adduser ezn
You'll be prompted to set a password for this user
To add ezn to a sudo group
adduser ezn sudo
To check if ezn is indeed sudo
id ezn
If ezn is a sudo user, the command should output 27(sudo) at the end of the line, after uid, gid and groups.

RPi 5.png

To switch to a specific user
sudo su - ezn

_ _ _ _ _ Remove default pi user

Since during the configuration, we initially logged in as pi, we need to log out from it first and then delete it. So, run logout or exit until you're completely out and then ssh back into RPi as ezn
ssh ezn@
sudo -i
deluser pi
To check a list of users
cut -d: -f1 /etc/passwd

_ _ _ _ _ Setting locale

sudo -i
echo "LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8" >> /etc/environment
echo "en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8" >> /etc/locale.gen
echo "LANG=en_US.UTF-8" > /etc/locale.conf
locale-gen en_US.UTF-8

_ _ _ _ _ public/private keys

To generate a public/private key pair, on your machine [laptop] run
ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -b 320
Both public [] and private [id_ed25519] keys are stored in a hidden .ssh folder in the Home directory.
To securely copy the contents of the public key into an authorized_keys file on your RPi [run this on your machine]
cat ~/.ssh/ | ssh ezn@ "mkdir -p ~/.ssh && chmod 700 ~/.ssh && cat >>  ~/.ssh/authorized_keys"

_ _ _ _ _ Disable pwd and root login

sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config
PermitRootLogin prohibit-password
PubkeyAuthentication yes
Uncomment and set it to no
PasswordAuthentication no
Save changes
Ctrl + s
Ctrl + x

_ _ _ _ _ Reload SSH

sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart

_ _ _ _ _ Reboot

sudo reboot

_ _ _ _ _ Login with a Host name

To ssh w/a Host name [watermelon, for example] as opposed to ssh ezn@ or ssh ezn@kibkadar, you'll need to modify the config file in .ssh directory. Open it:
sudo nano ~/.ssh/config

and add the following:
Host watermelon
User ezn
Port 22
Identityfile /home/ezn/.ssh/id_ed25519
Serveraliveinterval 30
Ctrl + s
Ctrl + x

Now you can ssh as Host
ssh watermelon


For Nginx and Tor setup >> instructions by Aymeric