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Hybrid Publishing


Two or more outputs

Two or more outputs (publications) from a single workflow, that branches out the end.


Connection between source and outputs


Writing < - > Design


Template based design.

With similar mechanics, but different templates - which results in different identities.

Hackers & Designers new website (prototype) wiki

Small costs - large audiences

Publishing to a wide audience, under multiple formats, at small costs.

W3C Portable Web Publications for the Open Web Platform full convergence between online and offline/portable document publishing

Form producing meaning

Not specific to hybrid publishing. But as at least 2 outputs are produce the influence of form over meaning becomes more apparent.


EPUB from Graduation works

Example - Graduation works website

Wiki: editing space


  • web applications dedicated to collaborative content creation[1]
  • anyone can become an editor
  • all content (edited, unedited, draft) is public
  • little editorial structure to begin with (only users and pages): allowing workflows and structures to develop based on project's needs (by using categories, templates, user roles, etc)
  • revision system: keeping track of each page edit
  • enforces semantic structure within (articles) content - making possible conversion between formats


  • not very intuitive
  • difficult to change its visual form

Glue: connecting spaces

  • Wiki API - a programming interface to the wiki.
  • Pandoc: converts the content from wiki pages' content to HTML (More on Pandoc's role in hybrid publishing in [2])
  • gluing scripts:
    • API calls to fetch content from wiki
    • Pandoc calls to convert content to HTML
    • Website HTML pages generation, from the fetched wiki content

Website: publishing space


  • based on template html & css files
  • pages are HTML files: easy to archive

Website design: Template


  • poor medium
  • inconsistently rendered across readers
  • lack of experimental, radical or utopian works or discourses
  • readable and writable
  • accessible: open-standards (HTML, CSS, Dublin Core metadata); Only requires a text-editor, and religious belief (to write it form scratch).
  • a book space?

Hybrid Publishing - tools

  • Structured text - HTML, Markdown, Mediawiki, styled docx
  • Collaborative distributed tools - [Git http://git-scm.com/] / Mediawiki
  • Document format converter - Pandoc
  • Ebook viewer, manager, editor - Calibre
  • CSS - for styling
  • Custom made scripts: to gather and assemble content, transform the outputs programmatically, generate experimental outputs , ...

Simple Epub recipe ( using Pandoc)



  • 1 folder for project
  • text file with wiki content
  • images locally stored

Quick recipe:

pandoc --from mediawiki --to epub3 --self-contained --output=mybook.epub page.md

Long recipe:

pandoc --from mediawiki --to epub3 --self-contained --epub-chapter-level=1 --epub-stylesheet=styles.css --epub-cover-image=cover.jpg --epub-metadata=metadata.xml --toc-depth=1 --output=mybook.epub page.wiki<pre>

'''minimal metadata.xml file'''
<dc:title id="epub-title-1">The Title</dc:title>
<meta refines="#epub-title-1" property="title-type">main</meta>
<dc:date id="epub-date">2015-11</dc:date>
<dc:creator id="epub-creator-0">Author</dc:creator>
<meta refines="#epub-creator-0" property="role" scheme="marc:relators">aut</meta>

arguments explained

  • `--epub-chapter-level` - at what heading level will the chapter brakes occur
  • `--toc-depth` - what heading level will be present in the Table of Contents
  • `--epub-embed-font` can also be used to embed custom font, but need to be imported in css style sheet

view book with calibre

ebook-viewer mybook.epub
  1. Interview with Ward Cunningham - inventor of the first wiki
  2. D.P.T. Collective. 2014. From Print to Ebooks: A Hybrid Publishing Toolkit for the Arts. Vol. 1. Institute of Network Cultures. http://networkcultures.org/blog/publication/from-print-to-ebooks-a-hybrid-publishing-toolkit-for-the-arts/